Reason and IdentityAudio
Isaiah Berlin Lecture, delivered by Professor Lord Parekh FBA, on 2 April 2008. The nature of the relation between reason and identity lies at the heart of moral and political philosophy. In the dominant view that goes back to Plato, reason is seen as an impersonal and transcendental faculty. It is abstracted from the individuality and social affiliations of the moral agent, and expected to deliver universally valid judgements about the good life and the right course of action. This view ignores the vital role of identity in human life, and the way it influences the range of reasons the moral agent considers relevant and finds persuasive. While a well considered theory of reason needs to take full account of individual identity, it runs the risk of placing identity outside the ambit of rational scrutiny and severely limiting the role of reason in moral and political life. This lecture explores ways of resolving the tension between reason and identity.
The Redescription of EnlightenmentAudio
Isaiah Berlin Lecture, delivered by Professor John Pocock FBA, on 30 October 2003. The lecturer is engaged in a multi-volume study of the eighteenth-century historical writing, Gibbon's Decline and Fall as its centre. This has led him to scrutinise the concept of "The Enlightenment" as it exists in our minds, in the light partly of his own enquiries but also of changing interpretations in the last thirty years, when "Enlightenment" has come to mean intellectual developments, often more Protestant that Catholic, which have shown them to be more closely involved than we used to think with the theology they aimed to set aside. The question has arisen whether any one concept of Enlightenment covers all that may be known by that name, and consequently whether it is appropriate to speak of "The Enlightenment" any longer. The Study of Enlightened historiography has also led to a re-examination of Isaiah Berlin's antithesis between an "Enlightenment" reducing all knowledge to the rational study of nature and a "Counter-Enlightenment " presenting all human phenomena as creation of the human spirit in the course of history. This antitheses can certainly be found, but seems distanced from the thought of Enlightened historians, who knew that what happened in civil history was often unlike what human nature would have produced if left to itself. What becomes of Berlin's antithesis once we realise that the history of historiography is unlike the history of the philosophy of history?
A Humanist's Conversation with the Twentieth CenturyAudio
Isaiah Berlin Lecture, delivered by Dr James H Billington, on Saturday 6 June 2009. The lecture was delivered at Wolfson College, Oxford, as part of 'Isaiah Berlin: A Centenary Celebration'.